Music has been an important part of human culture for centuries. Its effect is powerful and has the ability to affect the brain and emotions. The sound of a piece of music can be arousing, soothing, or even scary. It can help with memory, pain relief, and stress reduction. In addition, it is thought to influence beliefs, attitudes, and social behavior.
There is a wide variety of styles of music, but most are composed for a purpose: for harmony, beauty of form, or to convey an idea. Popular music has a wide following. Songs are often highly emotional, with lyrics that deal with a broad range of themes. Most songs feature a rhythmic element and an accompanying instrument or keyboard. Rock music has a large following, with guitars and percussion instruments playing an integral role.
Music is usually performed in theatrical productions, churches, or homes. Historically, it has also been used in advertising, geriatrics, and psychotherapy. Music has been credited with the ability to reflect human emotion and to resolve animosities between races and genders.
Music is composed for beauty of form, as well as the emotional effects of the music. There is a wide variety of styles, including rock, pop, classical, and folk music. Each of these has a modal characteristic. For example, jazz, bebop, and funk have distinct rhythmic characteristics.
There are two major approaches to music theory. One is the traditional Platonic-Aristotelian school, which is based on the notion that music reflects planetary movement, celestial motion, and a mathematical basis. However, this approach has not found support in the contemporary philosophy of criticism.
A second approach is the constructed model, which tries to understand music in terms of a meta-narrative. This view asks how to tell a work of art’s meta-narrative from its inter-subjective aspects.
This ideal of music is embraced by Edward Rothstein and Charles Rosen. But the philosophical debate about the nature of music remains heated. Some theorists, like St. Thomas Aquinas, believe the musical experience is a reflection of celestial movement. Others, like Rene Descartes, consider the musical foundation to be a mathematical one.
In the twentieth century, the global appeal of music led to the loosening of sexual mores, and to the advancement of egalitarian values. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, composers pushed the limits of tonal systems.
A third ideal of music, which is still held by a handful of adherents, is the platonic ideal. Although this ideal is rarely discussed in the literature of philosophy of criticism, it is the least popular viewpoint.
The concept of music has been controversial throughout history. For instance, the philosopher Democritus denied the need for music, and Sextus Empiricus called it a “disordered art.” Nonetheless, music has always been an important part of human culture.
Traditionally, Chinese music has been an auxiliary to narrative and ceremony. Its rhythmic and timbral elements have long been exploited by rock and soul musicians. Contemporary electronic compositions have also used a wide variety of sounds. Electronic instruments include synthesizers, theremins, and drums.